ON METALS AND ALLOYS: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE
go through this link
Hello. My name is Lindsay. I am a high school senior in Alaska, United States. My chemistry class is currently researching rocksts and propulsion systems. Weâ€™re making rockets out of 2 litre bottles as part of our grade. Another part of our grade is to e-mail a scientist and find out more about their job. Could you please forward this e-mail to a scientist who might have time to answer a few questions? I really appreciate your time.
1. W hat part of your job do you enjoy the most?
2. Would you recommend this job to others? Why or why not?
3. What kind of science do you deal with?
4. Do you bring your job home with you?
5. What do you do during your average workday?
6. How much education was needed and how much did it cost?
7. Why did you choose this field?
8. What got you into science?
9. What classes helped you in college and high school to prepare you for your profession?
10. Do you feel your salary is commensurate with what you do?
Thanks again for your time.
Studying biochemistry at the oldest university in my country and the oldest in central and eastern africa (makerere university kampala) as shown me the way to life. all along i fought life is that all simple, make it through high school then come to campus and you are done but i had a shallow scale. i wished one day if some body had informed me about the way some one should see school days at campus but all that remains 'i wish'in my first year i lad a lousy life style and i regained my senses to see that this those not fit a scientist late in the second year. i magine some one starting serious work in middle of the journey isn't that suprising. doing my retakes that i had accumulated i remember i had two of them(genetics and ecology both in Botany) woo God a miracle for me i on my way to make it again after paying the price. i takethis oppotunity to advise my fellow scientist in a make(high scholars) be serious stop that cheating you and your teachers do to forget your route to universities because university with science is about the principles you really grasped see you at the top. basabose.
The New York Academy of Science (NYAS) has decided to grant ca. 400 free one year membership for WAYS members:
"Pfizer has donated 400 memberships for international student groups to be part of the New York Academy of Sciences. This kind gift is the acknowledgement that creating an across the pond network of young scientists is important."
Lori M. Conlan, Ph.D.
Program Manager, Science Alliance
New York Academy of Sciences
If you want to take a look at what NYAS has to offer, please go to:
The awardees will be selected at the end of May amongst the most active WAYS members. Activity is defined by the number of points. These points or 'WAYS miles' are earned automatically each time you create contents of interest for the community (event, blog, comment, book page etc...)
Please note that as usual:
-Duplicata will be removed
-You should hold the copyright to the material or
-The source should be in the public domain
In any case your sources should be quoted properly.
It's time to blog,
have a good time!
The idea of engaging in writing research proposals is very nice indeed. This should be taken seriously even as we think of opening branches in most of the countries here in Africa.
We can then partner and write proposals for funding by donors. This will go a long way in shaping us as young scientists. The future is in our hands. We have to act.
It is my appeal that whenever such opportunities come up, we can call for interested parties from different countries, continents on this august website.
We should also note that there is power in numbers like the way we are organised in WAYS. I can sure us all that our voice can be heard by donors.
Bonjour Ã tous ! Jâ€™espÃ¨re que vous allez bien et que les stages en laboratoire se passent bien ?!
Bien ceci est un compte rendu dâ€™une des confÃ©rences du stage de physique quantique des vacances de FÃ©vrier (câ€™est a mi chemin entre le biologie et la physique quantique)
Des recherches ont permis de trouver une entitÃ© chimique capable de servir de sonde pour lâ€™imagerie dâ€™objet biologique, in vitro mais aussi in vivo. Ces entitÃ©s chimiques sont des Â« nanocristaux Â».
Les nanocristaux sont des molÃ©cules non organiques, constituÃ©es de mÃ©taux en autre. Elles ne possÃ¨dent donc pas dâ€™atome de carbone et dâ€™hydrogÃ¨ne. Les liaisons au sein de cette structure sont donc trÃ¨s fortes. Cela est un avantage car la molÃ©cule ne peut donc pas Ãªtre modifiÃ©e par son environnement. Cela est, hÃ©las aussi un dÃ©faut, puisque cette derniÃ¨re est tellement stable, rien de naturelle sur Terre ne peut la dÃ©truire, ou presque, et donc son utilisation risque dâ€™entraÃ®ner la formation de dÃ©chet non recyclableâ€¦
Quand on observe de plus prÃ¨s un nanocristal, avec lâ€™aide dâ€™un microscope Ã©lectronique (sa taille varie de 2 nanomÃ¨tre Ã 100 nanomÃ¨tre), on voit que la molÃ©cule a une organisation parfaite divisÃ©e en deux zones principales, le CÅ“ur el La Coquille comme reprÃ©senter respectivement en rouge et en jaune :
Allez sur le liens suivant pour voir une illustration de ce dont je parle : http://www.spectro.jussieu.fr/Optquant/Semi_conducteurs/Nanocristaux/ind...
On peut ajouter que ajouter que le cÅ“ur est composÃ© de 100, Ã 2500 atomes, la coquille elle est mÃ©tallique.
Pour expliquer le rÃ´le du nanocristal, on doit se pencher sur le domaine de la physique quantique.
De faÃ§on trÃ¨s simple (de tout faÃ§on ma connaissance ne me permet pas dâ€™aller plus loin ;) il faut considÃ©rer le Coeur de lâ€™entitÃ© comme un Â« corps fermÃ© Â» ou plus simplement une boite, oÃ¹ les Ã©lectrons ne puissent pas sâ€™Ã©chapper.
En fonction de la taille du CÅ“ur, les niveaux dâ€™Ã©nergies de lâ€™Ã©lectron varient (si vous voulez savoir ce que sont les niveaux dâ€™Ã©nergies, et bien reportez vous Ã un atome. Les Ã©lectrons dâ€™un atomes gravitent autour dâ€™un noyau Ã une distance prÃ©cise, ces derniers peuvent absorber des particules de lumiÃ¨re, les photons, si câ€™est le cas est bien les Ã©lectrons vont sâ€™exciter et pour consÃ©quence ils vont monter sur une couche supÃ©rieur, voir deux (ils graviteront donc plus loin du noyau). La distance entre deux couches est un niveau dâ€™Ã©nergie. Cette distance est variable, et plus elle est grande plus les niveaux dâ€™Ã©nergies sont importants). La puissance des niveaux dâ€™Ã©nergies est inversement proportionnelle Ã la taille du cÅ“ur, donc plus le CÅ“ur est petit plus les niveaux dâ€™Ã©nergies sont grands.
En rÃ¨gle gÃ©nÃ©rale, on envoie sur le nanocristal de la lumiÃ¨re ultraviolette. Les Ã©lectrons du CÅ“ur vont absorber la lumiÃ¨re, ils vont ainsi sâ€™exciter et passer sur une couche supÃ©rieure. Ils ne peuvent en aucun cas sâ€™Ã©chapper (ils sont piÃ©gÃ©s dans ce Â« corps fermÃ© Â»). Un Ã©lectron sur une couche supÃ©rieur/instable cherche toujours Ã revenir Ã une couche plus stable et donc plus faible, pour cela il doit rejeter de la lumiÃ¨re. Cette lumiÃ¨re rÃ©Ã©mise dÃ©pend des niveaux dâ€™Ã©nergies (il y a une correspondance entre les niveaux dâ€™Ã©nergies et les longueurs dâ€™ondes), qui dÃ©pendent eux mÃªme de la taille CÅ“ur du corps et donc du nanocristal. Conclusion : On envoie constamment de lâ€™ultraviolet (invisible) et lâ€™on observera une couleur visible (bleu, vert, orange, rougeâ€¦) de faÃ§on constante.
On peut imaginer les multiples applications que cela peut avoir en biologie pour suivre Ã la trace certaines protÃ©ines, cellulesâ€¦
Il suffit dâ€™insÃ©rer dans lâ€™ADN dâ€™une cellule, lâ€™information gÃ©nÃ©tique codant pour la synthÃ¨se de cet Ã©lÃ©ment Ã la suite de la protÃ©ine que lâ€™on veut suivre. Ainsi lors de lâ€™expression du gÃ¨ne notre nanocristal sera exprimÃ©. On envoie de lâ€™ultraviolet sur le tissu qui contient la cellule modifiÃ©e, on observe avec notre confocale ou autre microscope Ã©lectronique et BINGO, câ€™est magnifique des molÃ©cules qui brillent de partout ! (on peut mettre diffÃ©rents nanocristaux Ã la fois pour un festival de couleur ^^)
Bien jâ€™espÃ¨re que vous avez compris quelques choses, sinon dites le en commentaire :p
Bonne vacance et Ã trÃ¨s bientÃ´t
There is an meeting on formal method upload.
this is held in iit kanpur 12-15
the link for it is
The constitution only go up to the section on resignations. Is it just my computer or has the other information been accidentally deleted? If the later is the case then there is urgent need to re-upload the working document.
There is wide consensus that most of the Persi POPs are too hazardous to be used and have been implicated in a broad range of adverse human health and environmental effects including reproductive failures and birth defects (Edwards, 1987, immune system dysfunction, endocrine disruption and cancers (World wildlife Fund, 1999; Garabrant et al., 1992; 1987; Kasozi et al, 2006), eggshell thinning and decline of numerous bird species, as well as reproductive defects and immune deficiencies in wildlife (Damstra, 2004). However, one of the chemical known as Dichloro-Diphenyl-Tricholorethane (DDT) is unusual in that it is a public health tool as well as an environmental contaminant (Hecht 2004, Wandiga, 2001; Mitema and gitau, 1990; Sserunjogi, 1974). The use of DDT and its current controversies were reviewed by Kathleen Walker .
When first identified as a potential insecticide, DDT seemed almost too good to be true. Unlike arsenicals which were the popular pesticides then, DDT exhibited low acute toxicity in mammals, but was highly effective against a wide range of insect pests. The insecticidal effects persisted for a long time, especially when applied against indoor pests. DDT was also remarkably cheap and is still considered to be the most economical insecticide to date (Osibanjo et al., 1994). The insecticidal properties of DDT were not discovered until 1939 when the Swiss entomologist Paul Muller evaluated its utility as a moth-proofing agent six and half decades after its synthesis by a German chemist Orthman Zeider in 1874 (Carter, 2004). DDT proved to be a powerful tool for the control of public health pests such as mosquitoes and lice during World War II. In fact, it is said to be the remarkable wartime reputation of DDT as an insecticide that led to strong pressure for its commercialization and agricultural use. DDT became commercially available in the United States in 1945. Between that time and 1972, when its use was banned, the United States became the largest single producer and user of DDT in the world. It is estimated that 600,000 metric tons, or 34% of the world total, were applied in the United States, mostly for agricultural pest control (USEPA, 1972). The annual production in the United States peaked at 85,000 tons in 1962 when DDT was registered for use on 334 agricultural commodities including cotton pests, soybeans, corn, peanuts, apples, and tobacco and forest plantations.
Within a few decades, the persistence of DDT and its broad spectrum of toxic activity, initially seen as great virtues, were identified as serious flaws that not only limited its utility but also threatened human health and the environment. The publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson in 1962 raised public concern about the damage caused by DDT to the environment. Silent Spring was based on more than 15 years of research by wildlife biologists and entomologists that showed mounting evidence of negative impacts on wildlife from the use of DDT (Carson, 1962). Later research revealed both acute effects such as mass bird poisoning (Wurster et al. 1965) and severe chronic effects such as eggshell thinning and chick mortality among certain birds of prey such as bald eagles and peregrine falcons and oceanic birds such as brown pelicans (Ratcliffe, 1967; Cooke, 1973). Users of DDT also discovered serious technical problems. For example, continuous exposure to the widely applied and long-lasting insecticide stimulated the evolution of resistant pests as early as 1946 (Brooks, 1974). Because DDT tended to kill beneficial as well as pest organisms, it also created new pest problems. For example, populations of previously minor pests exploded to outbreak levels when their natural predators were killed by the persistent chemical (DeBack & Rosen, 1991). These technical limitations to DDT as well as the development of new insecticides contributed to a decline in use in the United States well before all agricultural uses were cancelled in 1972 (USEPA 1975; Maguire 2000).
Hello. iam glad to have joined this group of enterprising young scientists. i learnt about WAYS throgh Arinaitwe Kenneth and i got interested in the work and plans of the group. i have been reading through the suggestion to start a science centre in Uganda and iam particularly excited by this idea. science has for long been so theoretical and has tended to be boring to young scientists and students who are suposed to form the backborne of future researchers. This will not only show case work being done by todays researchers but will also encourage future ones.
Thanks to you all.
EOLSS is a virtual Dynamic Library equivalent to about 200 Volumes and is the largest online traditional Encyclopedia.
The EOLSS project is coordinated by the UNESCO-EOLSS Joint Committee and sponsored by Eolss Publishers, Oxford, UK.
The EOLSS is a knowledge resource in support of sustainability of the Earthâ€™s life support system directed at all segments of society.
It is a virtual dynamic library with contributions from over 7000 scholars from over 100 countries and edited by hundreds of subjects experts, for a wide audience: pre university/university students, professional practitioners, informed specialists, researchers, policy analysts, managers and decision makers.
The EOLSS body of knowledge attempts to forge pathways between disciplines in order to show their interdependence and helps foster the transdisciplinary aspects of the relationship between nature and human society. It deals in detail with interdisciplinary subjects, but it is also disciplinary as each major core subject is covered in great depth, by world experts.
For more info, please have a tour at: www.eolss.net
The license fee for individuals to access EOLSS is:
EUROS â‚¬148/*UKÂ£99/US$194 per year or
EUROS â‚¬197/*UKÂ£132/US$258 per 2 years.
All rates are available
The access is free for EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE UN LIST OF LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES (LDC)
The registration and Agreement forms are to be submitted to the UNESCO/IAU for endorsement/recommendation with a copy to Eolss Publishers Co Ltd by post.
"As universities on the continent grow stronger, research and science with a particular emphasis on practical results to aid national development are on the upswing. But can this trend continue, given the pressures to Westernize?"
This article by Kenneth Walker provides insightful stories about science in africa. It presents personal experience and views from scholar such as Monty Jones, Keto Mshigeni, Ruth Oniang, Klauss Rottman, Daniel Mtaengo etc..
I found Mshigeniâ€™s story about seaweed particularly enlightening:
"Dr. Keto Mshigeni, professor of marine botany at the University of Namibia, is one of the new breed of African scientists. Mshigeni has, like Jones, single-handedly created new industries for Africaâ€™s subsistence farmers. His work has launched mushroom and seaweed farming industries where none existed before, creating jobs for mostly previously unemployed women in East and West Africa.
In Zanzibar and in Mshigeniâ€™s native Tanzania, 40,000 women are now farming seaweed, which in some form is probably consumed by virtually everyone on earth. It is used in a wide variety of pharmaceutical and food products, including yogurt, toothpaste, shaving cream and ice cream. From zero seven years ago, the export industry in Tanzania is now valued at $20 million annually. Mshigeni believes the kind of farming that has been spurred by his research would be sustainable in all the coastal countries of the continent.
For his work on seaweed, Mshigeni has been awarded the UNâ€™s Boutros Boutros-Ghali Prize. But he says the biggest reward for him is to see how his work has resulted in an improved quality of life for the women who have become seaweed farmers. "
you can read the article at:
Petnica International Science School (PI 2007)
August 18-30, 2007
Petnica Science Center (Serbia)
PI 2007 is a summer program devoted to out-of-school science education. The focus of this year's program will be on critical and creative thinking and approaches in science and scientific research. Our goal is to gather
gifted, inquisitive, open-minded students motivated for scientific research, and to give them a short but intensive course on systematical problem solving.
The aim of the course is to equip students with the basic skills for evaluating and dealing with arguments, manipulating ideas, and the proper application of knowledge, through lectures, practical exercises and tasks that require analytical and problem-solving skills. Students are encouraged to think independently, be creative and exercise their presentation skills. During the course students are introduced to various
research methods (observation, measurement, experiment, simulation, results analysis, interpretation etc.) and then asked to apply these methods in the realization of small scale scientific projects under the supervision of
professional scientists. The suggested fields of research are astronomy, biology, ecology, linguistics, physics and psychology.
PI is organized and hosted by Petnica Science Center, the biggest independent nonprofit organization for out-of-school science education in SE Europe. Since 1982 Petnica has organized nearly 2,200 programs (seminars, workshops, research camps etc.) for 40,000 students and science teachers. All Petnica programs rely on its wide network of associates (over 1,500 professional scientists, successful amateurs, promoters of
science, science teachers etc.) in the country and abroad.
All students aged 17-20 (regardless of the type of school they attend or their nationality) are eligible to apply for PI 2007. The main criteria for admission are motivation for out-of-school learning and a demonstrated
interest in science and independent thinking. School results are important, but they are not a discriminative factor; an open and inquisitive mind and being ready to engage in intensive work are much more important!
Interested students should complete the student application form, write a personal statement, and provide two letters of recommendation. The personal statement should list your interests and explain why you would like to attend PI 2007, as well as anything else you think is important for us to know when selecting the right candidates - be creative. All registration materials should be submitted no later than June 1, 2007.
The program fee including tuition, learning materials, accommodation, meals, admittance to the recreation center and field trips, is 500. There are no application fees.
For more information, please visit http://www.psc.ac.yu/pi/
Or write to pi(at)psc.ac.yu or acaob(at)psc.ac.yu
SAJEMS is one of only a select few journals in the field of economic and management sciences in Africa with international accrediation by Thompson ISI.
A special issue on environmental resource and ecological economics is planned for December 2007.
For further information email email@example.com.