DR. M. N. AZAM PRIZE IN COMPUTER SCIENCES (SOFTWARE) FOR PAKISTANI SCIENTISTS
The Academy invites nominations in January/February each year from its Fellows, Vice Chancellors of the Universities and Heads of the R&D Organizations. Only one name is to be proposed.
The Prize carries Rs. 15,000/- Cash and a Certificate. The Pakistan Academy of Sciences has instituted Dr. M. N. Azam Prize in Computer Sciences (Software).
Four copies of detailed biodata, list of publications, research projects, and list of software with details in terms of application is to be supplied. A summary/citation highlighting the achievements of the nominee is needed.
The nominations complete, in all respects, received within due dates are processed. The documents of the candidates are sent to an expert for assessment in order of merit. On the basis of the recommendations of the experts, the Council of the Academy selects candidate for the prize. The prize is awarded to the winner in the investiture ceremony in the General Body meeting in November/December.
Thanks Ways members for your emails and comments. Here is list of my latest research articles.
*Why Bt rice is not suitable for Biodiversity rich Chhattisgarh?
*Are Capuchin monkeys (Cebus sp.) in danger due to illegal trade in Indian state Chhattisgarh?
*Don't declare traditional beliefs and practices as Blind faith; try to establish the science of it, if you can.
*Results of Ethnobotanical surveys conducted from January to August 2006 in Indian state Chhattisgarh. 9. Some interesting information on Safed Gunja (White seeded Abrus precatorius).
*Results of Ethnobotanical surveys conducted from January to August 2006 in Indian state Chhattisgarh. 10. Comments of natives and Traditional Healers regarding herbs mentioned in Garud Puran.
*Reference literatures are still having very less information about Natural wealth.
*Its right time to reap national and international queries related to minor forest produces of Indian state Chhattisgarh.
In AIDS research around the world there is need to give chance to Traditional Healers practicing Traditional medicinal knowledge about herbs and insects. In India, these Healing practices are providing great relief to AIDS patients. I have tried to document this traditional knowledge.
*Real health experts of Chhattisgarh â€œTraditional Healersâ€: Waiting for recognition and honor from civil society.
*Traditional Medicinal Knowledge about Herbs used as Supplement in Main Treatment of AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome) in Chhattisgarh, India. 1-280. (Compilation of Extended summaries with New comments)
*Traditional Medicinal Knowledge about Herbs used as Supplement in Main Treatment of AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome) in Chhattisgarh, India. 281-345. (Compilation of Extended Summaries)
*Working with the real health experts: the traditional healers of Chhattisgarh.
For more research articles on this aspect please visit at
Lately, I've been thinking more and more about the dichotomy between scientists and engineers. While similar in many ways, scientists and engineers have proven to be very different in terms of adaptability, use of resources, and application of theories. While these and other differences are essential to both groups, I can't help but feel that both scientists and engineers would stand to gain much from opening up dialogue with each other a bit more.
I myself studied civil engineering here in Montreal, though I later abandoned that career choice because, well it was a career choice, not a personal choice. In other words, it seemed like a good idea because I could get a decent job afterwards, with a decent starting salary. That's the reason so many of us do what we do in this capital-driven economic system we've built(indeed, we're programmed to think this way from a very young age), but in the end, it seemed like an awfully shallow reason to become an engineer, scientist or anything, really.
How many scientists here became scientists because they *really* love science? How many of us really grew up loving science itself, and knew from an early age that this is really what we wanted to do, regardless of the career path / job opportunities?
And how many of us followed a scientific career path because it would provide us with a comfortable living, a good salary, and a secure future? Or for some other superficial reason, such as going into a "well-respected" field, or making our parents proud?
One of the most important differences between a pure science versus an engineering degree is that there is a career path from an undergraduate degree in engineering. Engineering graduates are qualified to pursue their professional license. Not so in science, where one typically requires graduate work to be employable in that field.
Science primarily involves using experimentation to uncover new things about the physical world, while engineering is about applying that scientific knowledge to create useful products and services for society. While science is firmly rooted in research, engineering relies on both research and design. Both disciplines require a strong knowledge of scientific theory, math and computing.1
While both engineers and scientists know how to "tinker" with things, it seems to me that engineers like to tinker with everything around them that they don't yet fully understand, while scientists prefer to restrict their exploration to topics that fall within their own scientific grasp. A good example of this is the Internet - most engineers I know are much more web-savvy than most scientists I know. They both had the same starting point, but it's the engineer who was quicker at asking questions, figuring things out, not only trying to understand the "how" of the way things like blogging, wikis, distributed social networks, etc. work, but also figuring out the "why". These engineers seem to understand the importance of sharing and the value of open information, where the general attitude I've gotten back with my years of working with the global scientific community has been one of "This is my research, this is my information, etc.
Also - and this might have something to do with the aforementioned understanding of social networks - engineers accept the fact that they are just a very small part of a much larger system. When I think of engineers, the visual that appears in my head is one of mechanical engineers working in teams, of computer engineers spread across the world working on an open-source project, or of civil or mining engineers together on a surveying mission. When I imagine scientists, I see a lone elder man with a white beard surrounded by flasks, or - at best - a sterile lab with people in lab coats, completely quiet, each staring down their own microscope.
These are, of course, hilariously inaccurate caricatures. But it's undeniable that science has been - and still is - a much more rigid and impenetrable topic, while engineers have been quick to assimilate with the technology that's around them. Scientists seem to accept to use this technology - without trying to understand it - only if it serves in their field of research.
Scientists want to understand the theories behind something and they're willing to use tools when necessary to get to the core of why/how. Engineers want to build things and they're willing to use theory when it will help the construction.
The scientist vs. engineer relation is simple, without one, the other could not exist. No scientist can get a thing done, without a half-way descent machinist, (whether it be programming, or actually maching of instruments) Engineers on the other hand, must use every bit of applicable theory, whether it be from pure nature, or academic elitists, to produce something of value. Fuller's edict was "If it works, then it is beautiful." I believe functionality is the key to beauty as well, as functionality is a trait that is quantitative, as well as qualitative. That is where raw science and engineering form a unity, in pure functionality. It is their most common bond, and strongest.2
As for me, well after I left engineering I registered as an independent student, which is a status I retain to this day. I take courses that interest me because I want to learn more about them, things like psychology, languages, history, philosophy, and some science and engineering classes. I sit in on classes sometimes even when I'm not enrolled in them. With the absence of the usual pressure about grades and studying, I retain so much more from every course than I used to when I was "a student".
There are probably enough credits for a degree (or two) in there somewhere, but I'm not interested in even pursuing that right now. I find that the most fascinating thinking often occurs in the cracks between topics (a great example of this is the remarkable symbiosis we see in interdisciplinary science), not at their summits, so I try to build (myself, my work and my "research") horizontally, not vertically. Finding out how to apply existing ideas to areas where innovation is needed is more valuable to me than constantly trying to push the boundaries and discover "the next big thing" in a selected topic.
You've achieved success in your field when you don't know whether what you're doing is work or play. -- Warren Beatty
Does that make me an engineer or a scientist? Probably neither.
Or maybe a "mad scientist"...
Bonjour Ã tous
Je tiens a informer que Francois veut bien nous prÃ©senter son projet et son labo pour une aprÃ¨s midi, il m'a proposÃ© deux dates, donc j'aimerais (si cela vous intÃ©ressent) que vous me dite Ã quelle date c'est possible entre :
- Samedi 09 Decembre Ã 14h (puis aprÃ¨s on rejoint le groupe entier a ENS a 16h comme prÃ©vu)
-Mercredi 20 Decembre ,aprÃ¨s midi (heure a prÃ©ciser)
Donc hÃ©sitez pas a poster votre rÃ©ponse en comentaire, pour la place cela en devrait pas etre un probleme ;)
(perso je peut pas Mercredi j'ai cour toute la journÃ©e)
Le choix de la donc sera choisit en fonction du nombre ^^
D'autre part, FranÃ§ois a la possibilÃ©e (normalement) de prendre 3 ou 4 d'entre nous pour un mini-stage durant la premiere semaine de Janvier (au moins le 3,4,5) si vous etes intÃ©rÃ©ssÃ© il faut le poster en com' aussi! (ps: jespere qu'il restera une place pour moi qui suis trÃ¨s intÃ©rÃ©ssÃ© ;).
JespÃ¨re que cette proposition de FranÃ§ois va rentrer un vif succÃ¨s car ses projets (de Bio , hÃ©hÃ©) on l'air Excellent!
A trÃ¨s bientÃ´t,
the Anna Lindh Foundation has launched a
Call for papers to select participants in the next Euro-Mediterranean University Forum.
For more information you are kindly invited to consult the ALF website at the following address: http://www.euromedalex.org/En/paper.htm
Please note that the deadline for the submission of the abstracts of the papers is 31 December 2006.
La Fondation Anna Lindh a lancÃ© un Appel Ã
Contributions pour sÃ©lectionner des participants pour le prochain Forum universitaire euro-mÃ©diterranÃ©en.
Pour toutes information supplÃ©mentaire, veuillez consulter le site web de la
Fondation Ã l'adresse suivante
La date limite pour la prÃ©sentation des rÃ©sumÃ©s des contributions est le 31 dÃ©cembre
the website is maintained by the American University Washington College of Law.
"This site is particularly well suited to the study of international environmental law and policy, providing a rich resource of materials and contacts that would not otherwise be accessible. The Internet's global reach and depth of data make it ideal for research and communication throughout the globe. "
"The Home page contains links to the book's 21 chapters and annexes. Each chapter contains relevant links to sites containing treaties, treaty offices, documents, NGOs, government agencies, and cool sites found while surfing."
"The Institutional Players page contains links to the major UN system institutions, specialized UN agencies and programs, inter-governmental organizations, international financial institutions, and international dispute resolution fora."
If you come across a dead link, please contact WCL:
webmaster (at) wcl.american.edu
The Asia-Link Programme is an initiative by the European Commission to promote regional and multilateral networking between higher education institutions in EU Member States and eligible countries in Asia. The programme aims to promote the creation of new partnerships and new sustainable links between European and Asian higher education institutions, and to reinforce existing partnerships.
The objective of the Asia-Link Programme is to promote regional and multilateral networking between higher education institutions in Europe, South and South East Asia and China.
The Programme is funded by the EU budget, under the budget line for â€œPolitical, economic and cultural cooperation with Asian developing countriesâ€.
Eligible countries are the 25 Member States of the European Union and developing countries in Asia:
Europe: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom
Asia: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, IndonÃ©sia, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, MongÃ³lia, Myanmar/Burma, Nepal, North Korea, Pakistan,Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam
1. Partnership Projects
Partnership projects can undertake activities in one or more of the following three areas:
i. Human Resource Development
These activities aim to upgrade the skills of university teaching staff, in particular young faculty and future teachers (i.e. postgraduate students), and administrators.
ii. Curriculum Development
Activities aim to develop curricula, by producing new/improved courses, modules or teaching/training materials. Each project, which should be innovative, covers activities relating to the preparation of curricula and course material, their dissemination and the training of professors/tutors to teach them.
iii. Institutions & Systems Development
Grants are awarded for co-operative projects that aim to enhance the overall management of institutions of higher education through the sharing of experience between Asian and European institutions (or groups/associations of institutions).
2. Capacity-Building Actions
3. Programme support activities
Three studies are being carried out in early 2006, intended to provide a wider knowledge base to the higher education sector in Europe and Asia, in
order to enhance cooperation and mutual understanding.
The three topics are:
- Patterns of HE cooperation and practical issues affecting EU-Asia university
- Partnerships/relationships between universities and business/industry in
Europe and Asia
- University cooperation for sustainable development in Europe and Asia.
ii. European Higher Education Fairs
A first European Higher Education Fair was organised in November 2004 in Bangkok. This provided a forum for European higher education institutions and associations to promote the European HE sector to Thai students and
academics, and to exchange best practice on Asia-Link. Seven further Fairs are scheduled over 2006-2008 in China, Indonesia, India, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam.
iii. Networking; Stakeholdersâ€™ Meetings
A first Asia-Link Project Networking Meeting brought some 50 project representatives to Kuala Lumpur in September 2005. It is planned to carry
out further networking activities and meetings in 2006. The September meeting was held back-toback with the Asia-Link Stakeholdersâ€™ Meeting.
This was the third annual meeting of representatives from the HE sector, who provide advice and feedback on the Programmeâ€™s activities and priorities.
iv. Information and Communication
The programme website, updated on a regular basis, provides a range of information, news and statistics on Calls for Proposals and funded
projects. It also houses a partner search database, allowing interested higher education institutions to post their areas of interest. Flyers and brochures on the programme are also produced. Information sessions for potential applicants are organised in Europe and in Asia.
For more information on Asia-Link, and the projects it funds:Website:http://ec.europa.eu/
*Results of Ethnobotanical surveys conducted from January to August 2006 in Indian state Chhattisgarh. 5. Some important observations in Gariaband and Mainpur regions.
*Results of Ethnobotanical surveys conducted from January to August 2006 in Indian state Chhattisgarh. 6. Interactions with the Herb Vendors of Gariaband and Mainpur regions.
*Results of Ethnobotanical surveys conducted from January to August 2006 in Indian state Chhattisgarh. 7. Interactions with the Fishermen of Gariaband and Mainpur regions.
*Results of Ethnobotanical surveys conducted from January to August 2006 in Indian state Chhattisgarh. 8. Interesting information on folk zootherapy collected from Gariaband and Mainpur regions.
*Traditional Medicinal Knowledge about herbs used in treatment of Ulcerative Colitis in Indian State Chhattisgarh.
*Farmer's ways of managing insects and monkeys in Durg region of Indian state Chhattisgarh.
*Bt rice in Chhattisgarh: A new curse for the Biodiversity.
J'errais sur le web et je suis tombÃ©e sur Ã§a : http://www.in2p3.fr/physique_pour_tous/aulycee/nepal/index.htm
en gros Ã§a a l'air d'Ãªtre des chercheurs qui se proposent pour venir faire des confs dans les lycÃ©es.
ThÃ¨mes abordÃ©s: Le destin des Ã©toiles, comment la masse vient aux particules, le neutrino, l'antimatiÃ¨re etc etc...
Si Ã§a vous intÃ©resse, n'hÃ©sitez pas Ã les appeler!
The conference paper "Reinventing African Economies: Technological Innovation and the Sustainability Transition"
by Calestous Juma deals with the role of higher education for sustainable development and economic learning.
Focused on Africa, it also present case study outside of the continent.
Costa Rica's EARTH university is a must read!
the report can be downloaded at:
Climate does have a lot to say about how we develop particularly in Africa where extreme climate events are going to be commoner than before. The effects of climate change on health, energy, environment and above all development is a cause for the concern of African climate scientists. As a matter of fact, the importance of global climate change to international development has enrolled non climate scientists like physicists and mathematicians in the bid to study and predict the emerging climate with increasing efficiency.
This blog entry is to renew my earlier call for us to model climate change specifically for the African region without much dependence on GCMs.
So if you are a mathematician, engineer, physisist, atmospheric chemist, or even a social scientist, lets work together on this!
Seven recent research articles at Ecoport.org
*Traditional societies are having much for modern societies specially in field of healthy living.
*Results of Ethnobotanical surveys conducted from January to August 2006 in Indian state Chhattisgarh. 1. Interactions with the Traditional Healers of Gariaband and Mainpur regions.
*Results of Ethnobotanical surveys conducted from January to August 2006 in Indian state Chhattisgarh. 2. Interactions with the Herb Collectors of Gariaband and Mainpur regions.
*Results of Ethnobotanical surveys conducted from January to August 2006 in Indian state Chhattisgarh. 3. Interactions with the Senior Natives of Gariaband and Mainpur regions.
*Is rare medicinal herb Begonia tessaricarpa present in Indian state Chhattisgarh?
*Study notes (Agronomy) prepared for National Eligibility Test (NET) conducted by Agricultural Scientist Recruitment Board, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, India in year 1996.
Info de derniÃ¨re minute:
Le salon de la solidaritÃ© internationale, consacrÃ© Ã l'engagement des jeunes se tiendra les 17-18 novembre 2006, c'est Ã dire ce weekend, dans les jardins du ministÃ¨re des affaires Ã©trangÃ¨res (et foi d'Alice, Ã§a vaut le coup d'oeil).
Ã§a parlera de chantiers jeunes, de projets, et d'orientation vers ces domaines... Des motivÃ©s pour monter un projet d'ouverture vers la science avec une note de solidaritÃ© internationale..?
pour rÃ©cupÃ©rer une copie de l'invitation, contactez moi par mail!
Ã trÃ¨s bientÃ´t,
Dans le cadre de la Semaine de la solidaritÃ© internationale, le MinistÃ¨re des affaires Ã©trangÃ¨res organise le Salon de la SolidaritÃ© Internationale, consacrÃ© Ã l'engagement des jeunes, qui se tiendra dans les jardins de l'HÃ´tel de la Ministre dÃ©lÃ©guÃ©e Ã la coopÃ©ration, au dÃ©veloppement et Ã la francophonie les 17 et 18 novembre 2006 de 10h00 Ã 18h00.
Vous trouverez ci-joint le programme dÃ©finitif de cette manifestation ainsi qu'une invitation.
La Ministre dÃ©lÃ©guÃ©e remettra Ã cette occasion deux prix "Chantiers de jeunes" sur les dispositifs Jeunesse solidaritÃ© internationale (JSI) et Ville Vie Vacances SolidaritÃ© Internationale (VVV SI). Trois table-rondes consacrÃ©es aux Ã©volutions du Volontariat, Ã l'engagement des jeunes dans des actions de solidaritÃ© internationale et Ã la
dialectique Jeunes et CodÃ©veloppement .
EDUCATION OF THE GIRLS: A CHALLENGE TO PICK UP
Several forces slow down the education of girls in developing countries: child labor, forced and early marriages, the insufficiency of academic infrastructure, the lack of sufficient attention by parents to the academic evolution of the girl child, the existence of sexist stereotypes in academic manuals, amongst others. The consequences generated by these actions are enormous and far reaching and constitute a base for poverty and underdevelopment.
But why the education of the girls in the first place and how do we pick up this challenge?
In fact women make up about 52% of the worldâ€™s population, thus the education of the girl child; the women of tomorrow, must be at the center of all the preoccupations of development. An educated woman constitutes a check to the difficult dilemma faced by the girl child such as:
- Child labor, a situation faced mostly by girls in developing countries.
- Early and forced marriages, which masks other problems such as the sexual exploitation of the girl child.
- Maternal and infant mortality, which is a consequence of the lack of proper hygiene and health related information.
- The rapid growth of the rate of reproduction and thus the lack of a mastery of planification, which leads to malnutrition and its related deadly outcomes.
- The â€œexcisionâ€ also responsible for very high rates of infant mortality and the propagation of sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV and AIDS. We are well aware that AIDS has a huge impact on the activities of the primary sector, and is thus one of the several causes of famine in many countries.
We uphold two recommendations which we consider pertinent to overcome the challenges underlined in the millennium objectives:
- To support and encourage the education of the girl child to at least the secondary level, concurrently with the empowerment of women.
- Integrate in an educational manner, the revision of educative programs, school projects, school manuals and the training of trainers in Gender approach.
As a matter of fact the program on the actual education of the girl child executed this far, is limited to sending girls to school, although the official report is that, the abandonment of this process also begins pretty early. A case in point is Senegal, a country which is like the head light and model in West Africa, which champions the campaign and efforts for the education of the girl child, has registered a gross rate of the education of the girl child, which has steadily progressed from 63% to 80,60% in five years (1999/2000 to 2004/2005).This is however generally limited at CEI; three year of primary education, meanwhile the boys on their part always complete at least the elementary level (source: DRA: Ministry of Education-Senegal).
The maintainance of girls at school is obviously a complex issue, however pro-development programs which are oriented towards â€œthe financial autonomisation of womenâ€, coupled with the enhanced sensitization and conscientisation of the society could generate tangible and anticipated positive results in the long run.
Besides some related socioeconomic and cultural factors it is also vital to revise on the other hand, such as:
- Educative programs which influence the type of man to train and educate.
- School and education projects whose formulation makes more reference to men.
- School manuals with stereotyped contents, in which girls are attached to and associated with secondary roles. Worse still, in some cases, reference to women and girls is almost inexistent in scientific manuals.
Finally, it is important to emphasis that there is need to train qualified trainers, especially teachers and educators, in such a way that existing sexist attitudes and sentiments will be checked and possibly effaced entirely.
The way forward is long and difficult, and the year 2015, has been underlined as the year to evaluate the efforts concentrated to attain the fixed objectives and the projections. The solution to the afore mentioned problem generates another problem, namely that of the education of the girl child and the maintenance of the girl child at school, consequently it is important to actually start taking into consideration the problem of maintaining the girl child at school, in order to handle other related future problems, such as the under representation of women in high professions and functions. /.
Patrice Charlemagne ADOKPO
Teacher - researcher
Lâ€™ EDUCATION DES FILLES : UN DEFI A RELEVER
Beaucoup de pesanteurs freinent lâ€™Ã©ducation des filles dans les pays en dÃ©veloppement : le travail des enfants, le mariage prÃ©coce, le mariage forcÃ©, lâ€™insuffisance dâ€™infrastructures scolaires, le peu dâ€™attention des parents Ã lâ€™Ã©volution scolaire des filles, les stÃ©rÃ©otypes sexistes dans les manuels scolairesâ€¦. Les consÃ©quences de ces actions sont Ã©normes et Ã la base de la pauvretÃ© et du sous-dÃ©veloppement. Mais pourquoi lâ€™Ã©ducation des filles et comment relever ce dÃ©fi ?
Au fait les femmes constituent environ 52% de la population mondiale et lâ€™Ã©ducation des filles â€“ femmes de demain â€“ doit Ãªtre au centre de toute prÃ©occupation de dÃ©veloppement. Une femme instruite constitue un frein :
- au travail des enfants dont les filles en majoritÃ© dans les pays en dÃ©veloppement
- aux mariages prÃ©coces ou forcÃ©s, qui cachent dâ€™autres problÃ©matiques telles que lâ€™exploitation sexuelle des filles
- Ã la mortalitÃ© maternelle et infantile, consÃ©quence dâ€™un manque dâ€™hygiÃ¨ne et dâ€™information
- Ã la croissance rapide du taux de reproduction dont la maÃ®trise par une planification convenable Ã©vite pour beaucoup de familles la sous-nutrition et ses consÃ©quences
- Ã lâ€™excision, responsable aussi du taux Ã©levÃ© de la mortalitÃ© infantile, et surtout de la propagation des maladies sexuellement transmissibles dont le SIDA. Cette derniÃ¨re, nous le savons, prive de bras valides pour les activitÃ©s du secteur primaire et est une des causes de la famine dans beaucoup de pays.
Deux recommandations nous semblent pertinentes pour relever le dÃ©fi des objectifs du millÃ©naire :
- Soutenir la scolarisation des filles, leur maintien Ã lâ€™Ã©cole jusquâ€™au niveau secondaire au moins et en mÃªme temps lâ€™autonomisation des femmes.
- IntÃ©grer dans lâ€™Ã©ducation lâ€™approche Genre ; ce qui suppose la rÃ©vision des programmes Ã©ducatifs, projets dâ€™Ã©coles, manuels scolaires et la formation des formateurs Ã cette approche.
En effet le programme de la scolarisation des filles exÃ©cutÃ© jusquâ€™ici consiste Ã envoyer les filles Ã lâ€™Ã©cole. Or le constat est que le dÃ©crochage de celles-ci commence tÃ´t. Pour preuve le SÃ©nÃ©gal, pays phare pour lâ€™Afrique de lâ€™Ouest dans les efforts de scolarisation des filles, a connu un taux brut de scolarisation (TBS) des filles qui est passÃ© de 63% Ã 80,60% en cinq ans (1999/2000 Ã 2004/2005), mais celles-ci dÃ©crochent gÃ©nÃ©ralement au CE1 (troisiÃ¨me annÃ©e du primaire) alors que les garÃ§ons terminent au moins leur cycle Ã©lÃ©mentaire ; (Source :DRH â€“ MinistÃ¨re de lâ€™Ã©ducation â€“ SÃ©nÃ©gal). Le maintien des filles Ã lâ€™Ã©cole paraÃ®t moins aisÃ© mais des programmes de dÃ©veloppement orientÃ©s Â« autonomisation financiÃ¨re des femmes Â» couplÃ©s avec une conscientisation de la sociÃ©tÃ© peuvent aboutir aux rÃ©sultats escomptÃ©s.
Outre les facteurs socioÃ©conomiques et culturels, il faudra aussi penser Ã rÃ©viser :
- les programmes Ã©ducatifs qui influencent notablement le type dâ€™Homme Ã former
- les projets scolaires dont la formulation se rÃ©fÃ¨re plus Ã lâ€™homme
- les manuels scolaires dont les contenus sont stÃ©rÃ©otypÃ©s, oÃ¹ les femmes se voient attribuer des rÃ´les secondaires. Par ailleurs des rÃ©fÃ©rences aux femmes sont presque inexistantes dans les manuels scientifiques.
En fin il faut assurer la formation des formateurs, notamment des enseignants, Ã lâ€™approche Genre afin de rÃ©duire les attitudes sexistes de ceux-ci.
Le chemin qui reste Ã faire est long et 2015 servira Ã Ã©valuer les efforts consentis pour lâ€™atteinte des objectifs fixÃ©s et les avancÃ©es. La rÃ©solution de problÃ¨mes engendre dâ€™autres problÃ¨mes (de la scolarisation des filles au maintien des filles Ã lâ€™Ã©cole) et il faudra commencer Ã prendre vraiment en compte le problÃ¨me de maintien des filles Ã lâ€™Ã©cole afin dâ€™attÃ©nuer le poids dâ€™autres problÃ¨mes futurs tels que le problÃ¨me de la sous reprÃ©sentativitÃ© des femmes dans les hautes fonctions. /.
Patrice Charlemagne ADOKPO
Enseignant â€“ chercheur
BÃ©ninois Ã Bruxelles