The third in a series of papers in the journal Nature completes the case for a new method of predicting earthquakes.
The forecasting model developed by Danijel Schorlemmer, of the USC College of Letters, Arts and Sciences, aims to predict the rough size and location of future quakes. Testing of the model is underway.
- Prediction model superior to traditional criteria in bladder treatment decision ATLANTA--A statistical model can accurately predict which patients will have...
- National laboratory avoids Italy quake damage The Gran Sasso National Laboratory, a particle physics research centre...
- China quake a ‘once in 4,000 years’ event A massive earthquake that killed tens of thousands in the...
See original: Quake prediction model developed
Birds' alarm calls serve both to alert other birds to danger and to warn off predators. And some birds can pull a ventriloquist's trick, singing from the side of their mouths, according to a UC Davis study.
- US birds: still in major trouble A "State of the Birds" report released by the...
- Birds Use Light, Not Magnetic Field, to Migrate A cell in the eye may be worth two...
- Plant communication: Sagebrush engage in self-recognition and warn of danger DAVIS--"To thine own self be true" may take on a...
See original: Birds call to warn friends and enemies
You're making me angry. You wouldn't like me when I'm angry. -Bruce Banner
Hey, LHC, what did those protons ever do to you? You take them, accelerate them to the fastest speeds we've ever accelerated protons to on Earth, and then smash them into one another with more energy than ever before!
The Large Hadron Collider takes bunches of protons, accelerates them in opposite directions inside its giant ring, and smashes them together -- ideally -- at the centers of these giant detectors.
At Fermilab, each proton would come in with an energy up to about 1.0 TeV, for a total collision energy of 2.0 TeV. Each TeV, remember, is a Tera-electron-Volt, or 1012 electron-Volts.
At the LHC, they just broke that record, as each proton came in with an energy of 1.18 TeV, for a total of 2.36 TeV. In theory, the LHC can support a maximum energy of 7 TeV for a total of 14 TeV, although practically it won't get there anytime soon.
So you might reasonably ask yourself the following:
Why do I need all that energy to find the Higgs, which should have a mass that needs less that 0.2 TeV of energy to create?
I mean, wouldn't it make sense that Fermilab should've found the Higgs already? It's just a question of energy, isn't it?
Well, it's only a little bit more complicated than that. Your reasoning would be perfect if -- instead of protons -- you were colliding electrons with positrons.
Before they had the LHC (the Large Hadron Collider), they had LEP (the Large Electron-Positron... collider) in the same underground tunnel! They made many discoveries there, including the Z0 boson, but only got up to 110 GeV of energy total.
But there's a big difference between electrons and protons. Electrons are -- as far as we can tell -- just points with mass and charge. You smash a 55 GeV electron with a 55 GeV positron, and you're guaranteed to get 110 GeV of energy available to create new particles, whether they're photons, bosons, quarks, or anything else.
But protons don't work that way. Protons are made up not only of three quarks each, but also countless gluons and many sea quarks. Although each proton may have a tremendous amount of energy, it isn't the protons, per se, that collide. It's just a single quark or gluon inside each proton that goes "smash!"
Well, each collision, if you're lucky, will give you maybe 10% of the total energy available for creating new particles. So you can get to higher energies with protons than electrons, but they're also far less efficient. They're also significantly messier! The top image is what a proton-proton collision looks like, while an electron-positron collision looks like this:
So clean in comparison! But so limited in energy, too. So we can get more energy, eventually, out of proton-proton collisions. But the trade-off is that you have to put a lot more work in to get the same results as electron-positron collisions, including sifting through billions of useless collisions to get the one useful one.
So be patient; it's going to take a long time for any new discoveries to come to light. But the payoff? If the Higgs exists, the LHC is going to find it!
(Eventually.) Good luck to everyone over there; I hope to hear the good news soon! In the meantime, smash away!
Also check out the featured ScienceBlog of the week: Applied Statistics
See original: LHC Smash! [Starts With A Bang]
Nice! RT @vendorprisey: very pleased to discover @jpbarlow on twitter. He is one of the internet's good guys.Thu, 03/12/2009 - 11:19pm | by Dr. Gunn
State of the Archives, Dec. 3, 2009 by David Ferriero, Archivist of the United States http://ff.im/coy8qThu, 03/12/2009 - 11:15pm | by Dr. Gunn
mrgunn: State of the Archives, Dec. 3, 2009 by David Ferriero, Archivist of the United States http://ff.im/coy8q
RT @HoatlinLab: The OHSU Dept of Biochem. is recruiting new grad students. If interested, please send me an email at firstname.lastname@example.orgThu, 03/12/2009 - 11:03pm | by Dr. Gunn
@Comprendia Yep, did that myself recently, also set up gmail labels and "skip the inbox" for others.Thu, 03/12/2009 - 10:56pm | by Dr. Gunn
mrgunn: @Comprendia Yep, did that myself recently, also set up gmail labels and "skip the inbox" for others.
mrgunn: RT @amcunningham: Yes, good to know, I think [just kidding ;-)]
See original: Dust Sculptures in the Rosette Nebula
See original: NGC 6992: Filaments of the Veil Nebula
Last summer UNESCO joined with other organizations to convene an expert meeting on the rights of people to enjoy the benefits of science and the applications of science. Now a brochure has been published with the findings of that meeting.
The right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications (REBSP) is enshrined in various international and regional instruments. It was proclaimed for the first time in Article 13 of the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man (1948) which states that “every person has the right […] to participate in the benefits that result from intellectual progress, especially scientific discoveries.”The REBSP was further enshrined in Article 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) which stipulates that “everyone has the right […] to share in scientific advancements and its benefits.”This right became a binding norm when it was included in Article 15 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR, 1966), which recognizes “the right of everyone to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications.”
J Biophotonics. 2009 Dec 1;
Apoptosis-related microRNAs (miRNAs), the expression levels of which were observed to increase after photodynamic therapy (PDT), were identified as markers of PDT efficacy. miRNAs form a class of small endogenous RNAs that play important regulatory roles by targeting mRNA for cleavage or translational repression. miRNAs contribute to diverse biological processes, including development, cell growth, apoptosis, and hematopoiesis, which suggests a role in cancer development. However, no previous reports have described a relationship between apoptosis and miRNA expression after PDT. In this study, apoptosis-related miRNA levels were characterized by real-time PCR after PDT in HeLa cells. miR-210 and miR-296 expression levels increased 1 hour after PDT, although the other apoptosis-related miRNA (miR-7, miR-148a, miR-204, and miR-216) expression levels were unchanged. Since miR-210 is the most prominent miRNA consistently stimulated under hypoxic conditions and VEGF is capable of increasing miR-296 expression levels, these data suggest that hypoxia induced by PDT induces miR-210 expression, followed by an increase of VEGF expression and miR-296 expression. These results constitute the first report of an analysis of miRNA expression after PDT using talaporfin sodium as a photosensitizer, demonstrating that miR-210 and miR-296 expression levels are markers of PDT efficacy in HeLa cells. ((c) 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).
J Neuroophthalmol. 2009 Dec; 29(4): 311
Miabi Z, Nezami N, Midia M, Midia R
A 67-year-old man fell from an agricultural vehicle and struck his right eye on a protruding element. Eight hours later, he was brought to the emergency unit of an ophthalmology hospital where examiners could not find the right eye and believed it to have been completely destroyed. However, CT disclosed that the eye, apparently still intact, had been displaced into the anterior cranial fossa through a fracture in the orbital roof. This is the first documentation of such a phenomenon.
See original: Intracranial displacement of the eye after blunt trauma.
Great responsibility rests on scientists in giving help to politicians enabling them to bring good long-term political decisions in Copenhagen at the coming climate summit. In this respect the World Science Forum held in Budapest certainly has its merits, said Hungarian Prime Minister Gordon Bajnai at WSF’s 7 November closing session. WSF had a message to players outside the scientific field, to representatives of government, decision-makers in business, but also to the average person. Everyone should understand what an important role science plays in forming the future.
Great responsibility rests on scientists in giving help to politicians enabling them to bring good long-term political decisions in Copenhagen at the coming climate summit.
In this respect the World Science Forum held in Budapest certainly has its merits, said Hungarian Prime Minister Gordon Bajnai at WSF’s 7 November closing session. WSF had a message to players outside the scientific field, to representatives of government, decision-makers in business, but also to the average person. Everyone should understand what an important role science plays in forming the future.
A new strategy for saving tropical forest species was published in the leading journal Science on the eve of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Copenhagen, Denmark, by a team of researchers, including William Laurance, senior staff scientist at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and distinguished professor at James Cook University.
- Australia carbon trading blocked: what next? As widely expected, Australia's carbon emissions trading scheme was defeated...
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