Machine vision

Practical tips, tricks and algorithms.

See also deep neural networks, Markov random fields <{filename}graphical_models.rst>`_and `synestizer.

  • scikit-image is a collection of algorithms for image processing. It is available free of charge and free of restriction. We pride ourselves on high-quality, peer-reviewed code, written by an active community of volunteers.

  • Mahotas: Computer Vision in Python is a library of fast computer vision algorithms (all implemented in C++) operates over numpy arrays for convenience.

  • ilastik (also python)

    the interactive learning and segmentation toolkit

    ilastik is a simple, user-friendly tool for interactive image classification, segmentation and analysis. It is built as a modular software framework, which currently has workflows for automated (supervised) pixel- and object-level classification, automated and semi-automated object tracking, semi-automated segmentation and object counting without detection. Most analysis operations are performed lazily, which enables targeted interactive processing of data subvolumes, followed by complete volume analysis in offline batch mode. Using it requires no experience in image processing.

  • openCV is released under a BSD license and hence it’s free for both academic and commercial use. It has C++, C, Python and Java interfaces and supports Windows, Linux, Mac OS, iOS and Android. OpenCV was designed for computational efficiency and with a strong focus on real-time applications. Written in optimized C/C++, the library can take advantage of multi-core processing. Enabled with OpenCL, it can take advantage of the hardware acceleration of the underlying heterogeneous compute platform. Adopted all around the world, OpenCV has more than 47 thousand people of user community and estimated number of downloads exceeding 9 million. Usage ranges from interactive art, to mines inspection, stitching maps on the web or through advanced robotics.

  • simpleCV is an open source framework for building computer vision applications. With it, you get access to several high-powered computer vision libraries such as OpenCV – without having to first learn about bit depths, file formats, color spaces, buffer management, eigenvalues, or matrix versus bitmap storage. This is computer vision made easy.

See original: The Living Thing Machine vision

Concurrency hell

Asynchrony, robustness-under-failure, distributed calculation.
Tricks for doing lots of stuff at once without spending all day being confused by shitty thread abstractions.
CAP theorems, Byzantine generals, dining philosophers.

Although there are things of profound theoretical interest here, I will of necessity be taking a primarily pragmatic, solutions-driven approach.

See also probabilistic computing.

  • Reactive manifesto: [1]

    We believe that a coherent approach to systems architecture is needed, and we
    believe that all necessary aspects are already recognized individually: we
    want systems that are Responsive, Resilient, Elastic and Message Driven. We
    call these Reactive Systems.

    Systems built as Reactive Systems are more flexible, loosely-coupled and
    scalable. This makes them easier to develop and amenable to change. They are
    significantly more tolerant of failure and when failure does occur they meet
    it with elegance rather than disaster. Reactive Systems are highly
    responsive, giving users effective interactive feedback.

[1] (Why manifesto? Because “design pattern” isn’t as cool as manifesto this year, and staying current is a buzzword Red Queen race)

Libraries and hacks

  • DIY python coroutine decorators:

  • rx.js

    The Reactive Extensions for JavaScript (RxJS) is a set of libraries for
    composing asynchronous and event-based programs using observable sequences
    and fluent query operators […]. Using RxJS, developers represent
    asynchronous data streams with Observables, query asynchronous data streams
    using LINQ operators, and parameterize the concurrency in the asynchronous
    data streams using Schedulers. […]

    Using RxJS, you can represent multiple asynchronous data streams (that come
    from diverse sources, e.g., stock quote, tweets, computer events, web service
    requests, etc.), and subscribe to the event stream using the Observer object.
    The Observable notifies the subscribed Observer instance whenever an event occurs.

    Because observable sequences are data streams, you can query them using
    standard LINQ query operators implemented by the Observable type. Thus you
    can filter, project, aggregate, compose and perform time-based operations on
    multiple events easily by using these static LINQ operators. In addition,
    there are a number of other reactive stream specific operators that allow
    powerful queries to be written. Cancellation, exceptions, and synchronization
    are also handled gracefully by using the methods on the Observable object.

See original: The Living Thing Concurrency hell

Synchronising files

OK, pure network drivesjust arent as awesome as working locally, and synchronising changes globally. Git has shown us that for code, and dropbox has shown us that for documents - and for that matter, distributed databases have shown us that for data.

So, back to the individual user and their day-to-day needs…

File storage/sync/sharing is tricky. I am addicted to Dropbox, but their
technical and legal shortcomings are laughably bad. More secure alternatives:

  • SpiderOak is the most popular
    encrypted service, although still based in the USA, which, like Russia and
    China, is more of an open file-sharing depot than a secure storage location
    where you would keep actual private stuff.
  • sparkleshare creates a special folder on your computer. You can add
    remotely hosted folders (or "projects") to this folder. These projects will
    be automatically kept in sync with both the host and all of your peers when
    someone adds, removes or edits a file.”
  • syncthing:
    • Private. None of your data is ever stored anywhere else than on your
      computers. There is no central server that might be compromised, legally
      or illegally.
    • Encrypted. All communication is secured using TLS. The encryption used
      includes perfect forward secrecy to prevent any eavesdropper from ever
      gaining access to your data.
    • Authenticated. Every node is identified by a strong cryptographic
      certificate. Only nodes you have explicitly allowed can connect to your cluster.
  • Ori is a distributed file system built for offline operation and empowers
    the user with control over synchronization operations and conflict
    resolution. We provide history through light weight snapshots and allow
    users to verify the history has not been tampered with. Through the use of
    replication instances can be resilient and recover damaged data from other nodes.”
  • Wuala is a Swiss spideroak
    competitor, which capitalises on stronger Swiss privacy laws.
  • git-annex I have not yet tried, but it supports very explicit and
    customisable folder-tree synchronisation, merging, and sneakernets and as
    such I am excited by it.

See original: The Living Thing Synchronising files

Random Matrices

Many dimensions plus linear algebra plus probability equals Random Matrix Theory.

Turns out to ppop up in a lot of linear systems, and have som elegant results, therefore super trendy.

To read

See original: The Living Thing Random Matrices

Computational mechanics

See also:

To read

  • Decisional states

    “This article introduces both a new algorithm for reconstructing
    epsilon-machines from data, as well as the decisional states. These are
    defined as the internal states of a system that lead to the same decision,
    based on a user-provided utility or pay-off function.”

  • CRS’s CSSR

To understand

Are there actual applications of this to actual physics, or is this keyword
purely the mule offspring of physics adn computer science best put out to pasture?

See original: The Living Thing Computational mechanics

Embodiment

How much is the shape of our intelligence shaped by the fleshbuckets that contain it?
Is it not just our bodies but also local physical conditions?
Is there a recognisable definition of intelligence that would still be meaningful if the laws of physics were somewhat different?
Would intelligence recognisable to us arise in a gas giant?
Can we design intelligences better by giving them bodies?

Notes on this theme, semantics, robotics, and the debate about
symbol-processing-AI-versus-other that somehow included embodied AI for a while there.

To mention: Control systems engineering, over-long debates about the unit of analysis.

To Read

  • Greg Egan’s Permutation City

  • Anderson, M. L.(2003). Embodied Cognition: A field guide. Artificial Intelligence, 149, 91–130. DOI.

  • Anticipatory behavior in adaptive learning systems. (2003). Springer New York.

  • Arbib, M. (2002). The Mirror System, Imitation, and the Evolution of Language. In C. Nehaniv & K. Dautenhahn (Eds.), Imitation in animals and artifacts. MIT Press.

  • Barrett, L., & Henzi, P. (2005). The social nature of primate cognition. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 272, 1865–1875.

  • Berti, A., & Frassinetti, F. (2000). When far becomes near: Remapping of space by tool use. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12(3), 415–420. DOI. Online.

  • Bolhuis, J. J., Tattersall, I., Chomsky, N., & Berwick, R. C.(2014). How Could Language Have Evolved? PLoS Biol, 12(8), e1001934. DOI. Online.

  • Caporael, L. R.(1995). Sociality: Coordinating Bodies, Minds and Groups. Psycoloquy, 6.

  • Christiansen, M. H., & Chater, N. (2008). Language as shaped by the brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 31, 489–509. DOI.

  • Clark, A. (1987). Being there: why implementation matters to cognitive science. Artificial Intelligence Review, V1, 231–244. DOI.

  • Clark, A. (1998). Being There: Putting Brain, Body, and World Together Again. The MIT Press.

  • Cliff, D. (2003). Biologically-Inspired Computing Approaches to Cognitive Systems : a partial tour of the literature.

  • Dominey, P. F.(2005). From Sensorimotor Sequence to Grammatical Construction: Evidence from Simulation and Neurophysiology. Adaptive Behavior, 13, 347–361. DOI.

  • Elman, J. L.(1990). Finding structure in time. Cognitive Science, 14, 179–211. DOI.

  • Engbert, R., Krampe, R. T., Kurths, J., & Kliegl, R. (2002). Synchronizing Movements with the Metronome: Nonlinear Error Correction and Unstable Periodic Orbits. Brain and Cognition, 48, 107–116.

  • Engbert, R., Scheffczyk, C., Krampe, R. T., Rosenblum, M., Kurths, J., & Kliegl, R. (1997). Tempo-induced transitions in polyrhythmic hand movements. Physical Review E, 56, 5823–5833. DOI.

  • Gershenson, C. (2007). Design and control of self-organizing systems. Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

  • Gordon, G., Kaplan, D. M., Lankow, B., Little, D. Y.-J., Sherwin, J., Suter, B. A., & Thaler, L. (2011). Toward an Integrated Approach to Perception and Action: Conference Report and Future Directions. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 5.

  • Jung, T., Polani, D., & Stone, P. (2011). Empowerment for continuous agent?environment systems. Adaptive Behavior, 19(1), 16–39. DOI.

  • Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1999). Philosophy in the Flesh : The embodied mind and its Ccallenge to Western thought. Basic Books.

    I found the fundamental premise here interesting and useful, but the writing
    style so patronising and over-worked that it hurt.

  • Mcclelland, J. L., Botvinick, M. M., Noelle, D. C., Plaut, D. C., Rogers, T. T., Seidenberg, M. S., & Smith, L. B.(2010). Letting structure emerge: connectionist and dynamical systems approaches to cognition. Trends Cogn Sci, 14(8), 348–356. DOI.

  • Polani, D. (2011). An informational perspective on how the embodiment can relieve cognitive burden (pp. 78–85). Presented at the Artificial Life (ALIFE), 2011 IEEE Symposium on DOI -. DOI.

  • Rizzolatti, G., & Craighero, L. (2004). The Mirror-Neuron System. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 27, 169–192. DOI.

  • Semjen, A., Vorberg, D., & Schulze, H.-H. (1998). Getting synchronized with the metronome: Comparisons between phase and period correction. Psychological Research, 61, 44–55.

  • Thelen, E., & Smith, L. B.(1996). A Dynamic Systems Approach to the Development of Cognition and Action (Cognitive Psychology). The MIT Press.

  • Zahedi, K., Ay, N., & Der, R. (2010). Higher Coordination With Less Control: A Result of Information Maximization in the Sensorimotor Loop. Adaptive Behavior, 18(3-4), 338–355. DOI. Online.

See original: The Living Thing Embodiment

Flashcards/Lernkarten

  • Anki LaTeX notes importer

  • How to Teach Old Ears New Tricks

    Ha!:

    Some of the best data on this phenomenon come from studies of Japanese
    adults learning to hear the difference between r and l.
    Why the Japanese?
    For one, because the r-versus-l problem is notorious;
    Japanese speakers tend to do little better than chance when attempting to
    tell their rocks from their locks.
    Second, they know they have this difficulty, and many will happily
    volunteer to come into a research laboratory —-
    whereas English speakers do not care much about learning the difference
    between Hindi’s four nearly identical-sounding d’s.

    and:

    With a handful of recordings […]
    (freely accessible through Web sites such as
    Rhinospike and Forvo)
    and with testing software such as Anki,
    you can build powerful ear-training tools for yourself.
    These are tools that, after just a few hours of use,
    will make foreign words easier to hear and easier to remember,
    and they may give you the edge you need to finally learn the
    languages you’ve always wanted to learn.

  • More on Minimal Pair Tests

See original: The Living Thing Flashcards/Lernkarten

Scientific writing

Is usually terrible.
Possibly because writing is just plain hard,
harder in your second language
(and scientists are rarely writing in their mother language), and
possibly because even highly skilled textbook authors want to create demand for lectures where they explain in person what they obfuscated in books.

Anyway, I am especially interested in good mathematical style.

  • Knuth, D. E., Larrabee, T. L., & Roberts, P. M.(1989). Mathematical Writing. [Washington, D.C.]: Mathematical Association of America. Online.
  • Lamport, L. (1995). How to Write a Proof. The American Mathematical Monthly, 102(7), 600–608. DOI. Online.
  • Lamport, L. (2012). How to write a 21st century proof. Journal of Fixed Point Theory and Applications, 11(1), 43–63. DOI. Online.

See original: The Living Thing Scientific writing

Capitalism’s end game

“What money wants”.

Are human being relevent for the engines of global capital?
If so, is this relevence necessary or contingent?

Probably want to mention Piketty.

  • The Coasian flip:

    As software eats the world, and companies get smaller and we enter a
    networked economy - as the Coasean flip takes place - there’s a sharp end:

    TaskRabbit workers paying the cost of the company pivot. Neighbours of Airbnb
    letters soaking the externality of strangers in their space without choosing
    to accept it. Drivers who used to be employees being encouraged to be
    independent Owner Drivers - still in City Link livery - bearing the risk of
    the company’s capital expenditure and future success… without seeing any of
    the potential upside.

    And then that risk being cashed in, on Christmas Day after the turkey,
    invoices unpaid.

  • Internet turking:

    An Internet turking company uses the following to expand into traditional industries:

    • Internet economics —-
      from global access to customers and workers via smartphones
      to massive economies of scale that drive costs down.
    • An assembly line managed by a smart phone app. This is new.
      It’s Taylorism reworked for services. Workers micro-managed as if they were
      “bots”. It also sets the stage for rapid “botification” of work.
    • Independent contractors who supply both capital (cars) and labor (driving);
      they take all of the risk.

To read

Yes, a lot of this is (social-) science fiction.
Given the speculative nature of this question,
I think that is an appropriate degree of certainty to pretend to.

  • National of Slaves is a Charles Stross’s plesaing employment-obsession rhetoric

    When he prescribes full employment for the population, what he’s actually asking for is that the proles get out of his hair; that one of his peers’ corporations finds a use for idle hands that would otherwise be subsisting on Jobseekers Allowance but which can now be coopted, via the miracle of workfare, into producing something for very little at all. And by using the threat of workfare, real world wages can be negotiated down and down and down, until labour is cheap enough that any taskmaster who cares to crack the whip can afford as much as they need. These aren’t jobs that past test (a); for the most part they don’t pass test (b) either. But until we come up with a better way of allocating resources so that all may eat, or until we throw off the shackles of Orwellian Crimestop and teach ourselves to think directly about the implications of wasting a third of our waking lives on occupations that harm ourselves and others, this is what we’re stuck with …

  • Bowles, S. (2011). Is Liberal Society a Parasite on Tradition? Philosophy and Public Affairs, 39(1), 46–81.

  • Bowles, S., & Gintis, H. (1998). Efficient Redistribution: New Rules for Markets, States and Communities. Recasting Egalitarianism: New Rules for Communities, States and Markets, 3, 1.

  • MacLeod, K. (1999). The Cassini division. London: Orbit.

    Clockwork Soviet economy death machine showdown.

  • Stross, C. (2006). Accelerando. London: Orbit.

    Mayhem when company articles of incorporation go Turing-complete.

  • Stross, C. (2014). Neptune’s brood: a space opera.

    Immortal robots battle over interstellar investment capital.

  • Tainter, J. A., Allen, Little, A., & Hoekstra, T. W.(2003). Resource Transitions and Energy Gain: Contexts of Organization. Conservation Ecology, 7. Online.

    All rich ant coloniess are alike; each poor ant colony is poor its own way.

  • Watts, P. (2006). Blindsight. New York: Tor.

    Is consciousness getting in the way of capitalism?

See original: The Living Thing Capitalism’s end game

Pattern foramtion

Formerly: Reaction diffusion equations
How the leopard got its spots.

To mention:

Reaction diffusion equations
Turing, the Brusselator, morphogenesis etc.
Can I file Lichtenberg figures here?
Diffusion-limited aggregation?
Lapalacian growth?
Anything involving PDEs?

Patterns produced by electrical discharges on surfaces revealed by dusting with powdered red lead and sulphur. Sometimes termed 'Lichtenberg figures'. These experiments were conducted at Cragside in Northumberland, England, using a Wimshurst machine (electrostatic generator) and two 10-gallon Leiden jars. Current was conveyed to two rod conductors with a spark gap at which coated wires discs or plates were positioned. Lord Armstrong exhibited figures of the type produced at the Royal Society soiree at Burlington House in London on 16 June 1897. Plate 2 from Supplement to Lord Armstong's work on electric movement in air and water...by William George Armstrong and Henry Stroud (London, Smith Elder & Co., 1899). The plate is inscribed below: "Plate II. POSITIVE INDUCTION DISCHARGE BETWEEN SMALL (POSITIVE) AND LARGE (NEGATIVE) DISCS." William George Armstrong, Baron Armstrong (1810-1900) armaments manufacturer and industrialist was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1846
  • Team Prigogene
  • Ball, P. (2012). Pattern Formation in Nature: Physical Constraints and Self-Organising Characteristics. Architectural Design, 82(2), 22–27. DOI.
  • Bonabeau, E. (1997). From Classical Models of Morphogenesis to Agent-Based Models of Pattern Formation. Artificial Life, 3, 191–211.
  • Erban, R., Chapman, J., & Maini, P. (2007). A practical guide to stochastic simulations of reaction-diffusion processes. arXiv:0704.1908 [physics, Q-Bio]. Online.
  • Feldman, D. P., & Crutchfield, J. P.(2003). Structural information in two-dimensional patterns: Entropy convergence and excess entropy. Physical Review E, 67(5), 051104. DOI.
  • Halsey, T. C.(2000). Diffusion-limited aggregation: a model for pattern formation. Physics Today, 53(11), 36–41. DOI. Online.
  • Kim, T., Sewall, J., Sud, A., & Lin, M. C.(2007). Fast Simulation of Laplacian Growth. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 27(2), 68–76. DOI. Online.
  • Matsushita, M., & Fujikawa, H. (1990). Diffusion-limited growth in bacterial colony formation. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications, 168(1), 498–506.
  • Meakin, P. (1986). A new model for biological pattern formation. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 118(1), 101–113. DOI.
  • Motoike, I. N., & Imamura, H. T.(2010). Branching pattern formation that reflects the history of signal propagation. Physical Review E, 82(4), 046205. DOI. Online.
  • Turing, A. M.(1952). The chemical basis of morphogenesis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 237(641), 37–72. DOI. Online.
  • Vicsek, T. (1984). Pattern Formation in Diffusion-Limited Aggregation. Phys. Rev. Lett., 53(24), 2281–2284. DOI.
  • Zenil, H. (2012). Turing Patterns with Turing Machines: Emergence and Low-level Structure Formation. arXiv:1210.1572. Online.

See original: The Living Thing Pattern foramtion

Intellectual property

Shoulders-of-giants, communit-of-scholars, market design, scarcity, collaboration, trolls, piracy.
Bioforge, open source, creative commons, DRM.

Nothing but chaos for now.

Chinese vs Western IP models

Bunnie Huang says

This fuzzy, gray relationship between companies and entrepreneurs is just one
manifestation of a much broader cultural gap between the East and the West.
The West has a “broadcast” view of IP and ownership:
good ideas and innovation are credited to a clearly specified set of authors
or inventors, and society pays them a royalty for their initiative and good
works.
China has a “network” view of IP and ownership: the far-sight necessary to
create good ideas and innovations is attained by standing on the shoulders of
others, and as such there is a network of people who trade these ideas as
favors among each other.
In a system with such a loose attitude toward IP, sharing with the network is
necessary as tomorrow it could be your friend standing on your shoulders, and
you’ll be looking to them for favors.
This is unlike the West, where rule of law enables IP to be amassed over a
long period of time, creating impenetrable monopoly positions. It’s good for
the guys on top, but tough for the upstarts.

See original: The Living Thing Intellectual property

Plain-text blogging

Companion piece to academic writing workflow,
wherein I will mention how to make plaintext lifestyle choices available to non-academics, i.e.

  • people who don’t live inside text editors.
  • who don’t need equation support.
  • who don’t need citation support.

How hard can it be?

(long pause)

To mention:

  • gitit:

    Gitit is a wiki backed by a git, darcs, or mercurial filestore. Pages and
    uploaded files can be modified either directly via the VCS’s command-line
    tools or through the wiki’s web interface. Pandoc is used for markup
    processing, so pages may be written in (extended) markdown, reStructuredText,
    LaTeX, HTML, or literate Haskell, and exported in ten different formats,
    including LaTeX, ConTeXt, DocBook, RTF, OpenOffice ODT, and MediaWiki markup.

  • The few hundred other static site generators.

  • Pelican, which I use, and its twin Nikola and cousin Nikola.

  • preview tools such as marked, and restview.

  • Marsedit?

See original: The Living Thing Plain-text blogging

Machine information retrieval

“Searching for stuff on the computer”.

Cunning hacks for digging through word haystacks space with the computer.

Continuous Skip-gram model, bag of words, cunning kernels and vector differences.

Software

  • word2vec

    “This tool provides an efficient implementation of the continuous bag-of-words
    and skip-gram architectures for computing vector representations of words.
    These representations can be subsequently used in many natural language
    processing applications and for further research.”

  • Luke

    “Lucene is an Open Source, mature and high-performance Java search engine. It
    is highly flexible, and scalable from hundreds to millions of documents.

    Luke is a handy development and diagnostic tool, which accesses already
    existing Lucene indexes and allows you to display and modify their content in
    several ways…”

  • whoosh

    “Whoosh is a fast, featureful full-text indexing and searching library
    implemented in pure Python. Programmers can use it to easily add search
    functionality to their applications and websites. Every part of how Whoosh
    works can be extended or replaced to meet your needs exactly.”

  • xapian

  • sphinx

  • lemur

To read

  • Jeff Dean’s CIKM Keynote.
    (that’s “Conference on Information and Knowledge Management” to you and me.)

    “Embedding vectors trained for the language modeling task have
    very interesting properties (especially the skip-gram model)”

    \begin{equation*}
    E(\text{hotter}) - E(\text{hot}) \approx E(\text{bigger}) - E(\text{big})
    E(\text{Rome}) - E(\text{Italy}) \approx E(\text{Berlin}) - E(\text{Germany})
    \end{equation*}

    “Skip-gram model w/ 640 dimensions trained on 6B words of news text
    achieves 57% accuracy for analogy-solving test set.”

  • Karpathy, A., & Fei-Fei, L. (2014). Deep Visual-Semantic Alignments for Generating Image Descriptions. arXiv:1412.2306 [cs]. Online.

  • Le, Q. V., & Mikolov, T. (2014). Distributed Representations of Sentences and Documents. arXiv:1405.4053 [cs]. Online.

  • Mikolov, T., Chen, K., Corrado, G., & Dean, J. (2013). Efficient Estimation of Word Representations in Vector Space. arXiv:1301.3781 [cs]. Online.

  • Mikolov, T., Le, Q. V., & Sutskever, I. (2013). Exploiting Similarities among Languages for Machine Translation. arXiv:1309.4168 [cs]. Online.

  • Mikolov, T., Yih, W., & Zweig, G. (2013). Linguistic Regularities in Continuous Space Word Representations. In HLT-NAACL (pp. 746–751). Citeseer. Online.

  • Oz, C., & Leu, M. C.(2011). American Sign Language word recognition with a sensory glove using artificial neural networks. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 24(7), 1204–1213. Online.

  • Pennington, J., Socher, R., & Manning, C. D.(2014). GloVe: Global vectors for word representation. Proceedings of the Empiricial Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP 2014), 12. Online.

See original: The Living Thing Machine information retrieval

Semantics

What do words mean anyway?

To mention: Wierzbicka’s semantic primes, Valiant’s PAC-learning, Wittgenstein, probably Mark Johnson if the over-writing doesn’t kill me. Logic-and-language philosophers, albeit dismissively. Classic AI symbolic reasoning approaches.

To read

  • Stolk, A., Noordzij, M. L., Verhagen, L., Volman, I., Schoffelen, J.-M., Oostenveld, R., … Toni, I. (2014). Cerebral coherence between communicators marks the emergence of meaning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(51), 18183–18188. DOI. Online.

    This one is worth it for the tag alone: “experimental semiotics”

    How can we understand each other during communicative interactions? An
    influential suggestion holds that communicators are primed by each other’s
    behaviors, with associative mechanisms automatically coordinating the
    production of communicative signals and the comprehension of their
    meanings.
    An alternative suggestion posits that mutual understanding
    requires shared conceptualizations of a signal’s use, i.e., “conceptual
    pacts” that are abstracted away from specific experiences. Both accounts
    predict coherent neural dynamics across communicators, aligned either to
    the occurrence of a signal or to the dynamics of conceptual pacts.
    Using
    coherence spectral-density analysis of cerebral activity simultaneously
    measured in pairs of communicators, this study shows that establishing
    mutual understanding of novel signals synchronizes cerebral dynamics across
    communicators’ right temporal lobes.
    This interpersonal cerebral coherence
    occurred only within pairs with a shared communicative history, and at
    temporal scales independent from signals’ occurrences. These findings favor
    the notion that meaning emerges from shared conceptualizations of a
    signal’s use.

See original: The Living Thing Semantics

Sundanese Music

To mention:

jaiponganan, celeumpong, karinding, gamelan degung, kendang, rebab, heavy metal, indy rock…

See also Sethares on Indonesian tuning systems generally.

  • Aral, S., Muchnik, L., & Sundararajan, A. (2009). Distinguishing influence-based contagion from homophily-driven diffusion in dynamic networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(51), 21544–21549. DOI. Online.
  • Cook, S. (1992). Guide to Sundanese music. Bandung: Simon Cook. Online.
  • Cook, S. (2001). The song is the thing: Patokan, Alur Lagu and the impact of the female vocal soloists on Sundanese instrumental music. Contemporary Theatre Review, 11(1), 67–97. DOI. Online.
  • Gopinath, G. (1995). “Bombay, U.K., Yuba City”: Bhangra Music and the Engendering of Diaspora. Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies, 4(3), 303–321. DOI. Online.
  • Harrell, M. L.(1974). The music of the gamelan degung of West Java. University of California, Los Angeles.
  • Luvaas, B. (2006). Re-producing pop The aesthetics of ambivalence in a contemporary dance music. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 9(2), 167–187. DOI. Online.
  • Luvaas, B. (2009). DISLOCATING SOUNDS: The Deterritorialization of Indonesian Indie Pop. Cultural Anthropology, 24(2), 246–279. DOI. Online.
  • Luvaas, B. (2010). Designer Vandalism: Indonesian Indie Fashion and the Cultural Practice of Cut “n” Paste. Visual Anthropology Review, 26(1), 1–16. DOI. Online.
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See original: The Living Thing Sundanese Music