The origin and evolution of viruses and viral bottlenecks during multiplicity of infection

Name : Leon Matshingana
Num de plume : Mr Scientist
Title : The origin and evolution of viruses and viral bottlenecks during multiplicity of infection.
Length : 1661 words

DECLARATION I, the undersigned, declare that this essay is entirely my own written work, except where otherwise accredited.

Signed: L. Matshingana
Date: November 2016

The origin and evolution of viruses and viral bottlenecks during multiplicity of infection

Re: Journal Promotion: The Journal of Caribbean Students' Research (ISSN: 0799-3048)

Dear Fellow Pursuers on the scientific quest for truth, Seasoned Scientists, Professionals, Distinguished Professors, Students and University graduates:

Good day/evening. How is every one? I do hope you have time out of your busy schedule to read this blog entry. The Journal of Caribbean Students' Research (JOCSR) cordially invites you to join us on a voyage for the quest for truth through scientific exploration.

The Journal of Caribbean Students' Research hopes to be a newly launched online only, open access and peer-reviewed journal for undergraduate (college level) science students for the publication of high quality and refereed papers. This journal is also ISSN registered.

Humanity on Earth: Bending the curves

I just watched a TED talk by Johan Rockström that nicely sums up the current situation of our species on our planet.

I really recommend watching the video in full, but since I know that some of you will hesitate to do this, here is a brief travel guide through the video (times in min): The Earth is a complex system (7:15), and it faces multiple pressures (3:46) that are driving it away from its current equilibrium state. Such complex systems have multiple states of equilibrium, and the transitions between them may be sudden (5:36-5:38). The human contributions are nicely symbolized at 4:02 and detailed between 4:35 and 4:55.

IAS2010: Is it hard being a scientist?

From June 14-25, an unusual event of science engagement took place online, which brought over 5000 school kids and 100 scientists together for chats and Q&A sessions on science and how life is like as a scientist: "I'm a Scientist". To get a flavour of these questions (of which over 7000 were asked in total), a few of them are displayed below (in original spelling):

I'm a Scientist and the Beryllium Fraud

I had trouble with the spam filter on this one, so I originally posted it here.

Starting this week, I have been part of "I'm a Scientist — Get me out of here", a very interesting science communication experiment, in which 8000 school kids and 100 scientists meet online (in 20 different places) to discuss what science means for them, and what is important about that (I try to keep track of it here).

Science jobs and open new reserch position

There are many sites providing details for searching science based jobs. however sometimes its difficult to get the right search. the following web link is very useful for locating latest science based jobs as well as to locate the newly opened research positions of various research leveles.

The illustrated anatomy of a paper - and how it may look like on a wiki

Following up on last night's demo of a paper-turned-into-wiki-article, I am adding below a pictorial summary of some of the key issues. The comments are meant to apply to a typical paper, not necessarily just this one or other papers in this journal.

First, let's take a look at the anatomy of the paper in its native state (typically pdf, often HTML, rarely XML or other machine-readable formats).

Reducing publications to their essence

While 140-character summaries of scientific papers seem to be the topic of today in some parts of my feedsphere (#sci140), I wish to get back to another way of making publications shorter and more efficient, as has been discussed before in various circumstances, e.g. under the label of micropublication.

Let me start by requoting John Wilbanks:

Science is already a wiki if you look at it a certain way. It’s just a highly inefficient one -- the incremental edits are made in papers instead of wikispace, and significant effort is expended to recapitulate existing knowledge in a paper in order to support the one to three new assertions made in any one paper.

In this spirit, I have taken one of my articles whose licenses permit reuse and modifications and turned its abstract and introduction into a demo on how publishing in a wiki-style environment may look like.

International Research School Moscow 2010

12/01/2010 10:07
Logo or Venue image: 
Contact Email: 

In summer 19-30 June 2010 in Moscow - the capital of Russian Federation - is going to be held International Research School for youngsters from 13 to 18.
Students will work in project groups making researches in different fields of science. The project is held under the support of MILSET ( and the Russian Academy of Science.
We invite young specialist to work at IRS 2010 as assistant trainers in chemistry and entomology projects.
More info you can find here:


Scholar's Copyright Project: an interesting issue

Further Readings:

At a time when we have the technologies to enable global access to and distributed processing of scientific research and data, legal and technical restrictions are making it difficult to connect the dots. Even when research and data is made public, it’s often locked up by regimes or contracts that prohibit changing file formats or languages, integrating data, semantic enrichment, text mining and more. These restrictions sharply limit the impact of published research, and prevent us from exploiting the potential of the Web for accelerating scientific discovery.

Arabic-English Collaborative Translation in Journalism and Science: Try Now !

The Proof of the Pudding is in the Eating. Well, same for Web translation.
I once stressed the importance of the future of Web Translation in a former post about the potential of multilingual E-Science

Why don't you give it a try ?
Transeuropéennes E.g. (try the arabic version)

UNESCO tracking scientific development

A cheerleader and supporter of WAYS, UNESCO, has prepared a report documenting the gains in developing countries to increase their percent expenditure of GDP spent on R & D activities. Notably, there has been an increase in the number of researchers. However, one must consider the impact of training so many researchers. A section from the Budapest Communiqué (see: Daniel's blog at: highlights the current oversupply of young scientists and encourages that we utilize our scientific talents in ways that are sustainable for the future.

Can Social Networks Tackle our Common Equations?

"Can Social Networks Tackle our Common Equations?"

Sustainable development or Sustainomics can be defined as the science that analyzes the equations of our future.

Never before in human history, science based predictions have attracted so much interest and had such important consequences on political decision making.

By and large, Climate Change is the most impressive illustration of this paradigm. The 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference will start in just a month in Copenhagen. Negotiators from nearly 180 countries hope to nail down the outline of a plan to provide tens of billions of dollars a year to fight climate change. The Climate change challenges are now a mass-media issue, mobilize hundreds of thousands of people and generate millions of jobs worldwide.

However, science based predictions is a new field that requires new scientific processes to operate.

1st Regional Conference of Southern African Young Water Professionals

Contact Email: 

The conference aims to provide a forum for young researchers and professionals in water and wastewater science, research, engineering, technology, management and other areas of the water sector, to present their work and meet their peers in multi-disciplinary fields of water research to further career development. Participants will be able to discuss current and future water management concerns.

The Young Water Professional who is adjudged the “Best Speaker” at this regional conference will be sent to represent South Africa at the 5th IWA International Young Water Professionals Conference in Sydney, Australia from 5th - 7th July 2010 (, subject to meeting the IWA’s YWP eligibility criteria. See the IWA YWP website for details:

The Young Water Professional who is the winner of the “Best Poster” Award at this conference will receive conference registration and a travel and subsistence award to attend the WISA 2010 Biennial Conference and Exhibition in Durban from 18th - 22nd April 2010 ( , subject to meeting WISA’s YWP eligibility criteria.

The organizers extend a general invitation to students and young professionals (who are under the age of 35, or who received their qualifications less than five years ago, or have not yet completed their studies) working in the water and wastewater sector in South Africa or other African countries. These include delegates from:
• Universities
• Provincial and national water departments
• Water engineers, managers and educators
• Water and social scientists, biologists and hydrologists
• Resource economists and management agencies
• Representatives of water boards and industry
• Policy-makers, consultants, stakeholders and relevant NGOs

Delegates who may be bursars of DAAD (Germany), IFS, ISP or SPIDER (Sweden) are advised that these bodies may have scholarships to enable travel within Africa. Enquiries should be made directly to those organisations.

The two-day conference will include invited keynote presentations, an introductory talk on the IWA YWP, WISA and the Southern African YWP Programme, themed plenary sessions with oral presentations, a round table discussion, poster displays, two social functions, a speed meeting session and ample opportunity for networking and discussion.

Monday, 18th January
16:30 - 17:30 Main Foyer - informal drinks
Tuesday, 19th January
07:00 - 09:00 REGISTRATION and breakfast snacks
09:00 - 09:15 WELCOME: Dr Jo Burgess
09:15 - 09:30 OPENING: Ms Kati Ruzicka / Adrian Puigarnau
09:30- 10:00 KEYNOTE ADDRESS
10:00 - 10:30 TEA
10:30 -12:10 SESSION 2: Water Resources
12:10 - 13:10 LUNCH
13:10 -15:00 SESSION 3: Community water supply and sanitation
15:00 - 15:30 TEA
15:30 -16:50 SESSION 4: Water management, treatment & use
17:30 VELA VKE SPIT BRAAI: Deck - CSIR Conference Centre
Wednesday, 20th January
08:30 - 10:00 SESSION 5: Health related aspects
10:00 - 10:30 TEA
10:30 -12:00 SESSION 6: Wastewater
12:00: 12:30 TEA
12:30 - 13:30 Round Table Discussion
13:30 - 14:30 Speed Meeting Session
14:30 - 16:00 DST AWARD LUNCHEON with presentation of Best Speaker and Best Poster awards
16:00 Closure

Keynote presentations will be made by Prof Hamanth Kasan, IWA-SA, Mr Gareth McConkey, WISA, and Dr Douglas Sanyahumbi, Cape Biotech Trust.

A full list of papers accepted for oral and poster presentation is available on the conference website:

SOCIAL FUNCTIONS - All registered delegates are invited to the two social functions:
Spit braai – the braai will take place on the new deck (up amongst the trees – with a fabulous view!) at the CSIR Conference Centre after the day’s proceedings: ±17:30 on Tuesday, 19th January. This function is sponsored by Vela VKE, who have also kindly provided conference T-shirts. These will be needed for the group photo to commemorate the first ever YWP conference in Africa!
Awards lunch – The finale of the conference will be a late seated buffet lunch to be held at the venue: 14:30 to 16:00 on Wednesday, 20th January. The ‘Best Presenter’ and the ‘Best Poster’ awards will be announced and there will be spot prizes and draws. An event not to be missed!

The conference will be applying for two CPD points. Attending delegates will be given documentary proof and advised of the Accreditation Reference Number.

Dr Tobias Barnard : Water and Health Research Unit, University of Johannesburg
Dr Jo Burgess : Water Research Commission
Mr Manglin Pillay : Metago Engineering Services (MES)
Dr Henry Roman : Metago Engineering Services (MES)
Ms Cilla Taylor : PCO: Cilla Taylor Conferences
Ms Renay van Wyk : Department of Environmental Health, University of Johannesburg

Payment of the registration fee entitles delegates to:
• Attendance at all technical sessions.
• A snack on arrival early morning, lunches and mid-morning/afternoon refreshments at the venue.
• A flash disk containing all the written papers presented at the conference.
• Attendance at the two social functions (Spit Braai and the Awards lunch)
• Courtesy shuttle transport between the appointed hotels and the venue.
• A bag containing conference documentation.

The International YWP Programme was initially created to counteract a perceived loss of knowledge brought about by the impending retirement of many leaders in the water industry. The YWP Programme provides a range of activities, services and initiatives to young professionals and students in the water and wastewater sectors. The programme connects with employers, academic institutions and other professional associations to ensure that the future needs of the sector are understood and addressed and that inter-generational dialogue is created to form links between senior professionals of the sector and the incoming young professionals. The Programme includes the following aims:
• Connecting people in order to provide opportunities for YWPs to meet and communicate.
• Career development opportunities for young water professionals through the organisation of workshops and online initiatives.
• Sector support to help employers with the recruitment and retention of YWPs.
• Programme development to ensure that the programme remains relevant to the needs of YWP.
• Engagement of young water professionals in IWA programmes and other water related initiatives.

Website: (works best with IE)

BusinessWeek: "How Science Can Create Millions of New Jobs"

 Video from BusinessWeek:

It seems a bit optimistic to me to claim that "within a few years, the US economy will be capable of generating the high-value jobs required for economic recovery" simply by increasing public-private partnerships. This sounds like the kind of paradigm shift that the entrenched U.S. economy will find very difficult to accept.